Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Surface Antigen Expression

What Is Surface Antigen Expression? Surface antigens, or cell markers, are a handy way for scientists to classify cells based on cell type and function, which is beneficial for early-stage research as well as disease diagnosis and treatment.  The cluster of differentiation (CD) nomenclature was adopted in the early 1980s and serves as a global […]

Useful Tools in Immunology: AlleleFrequencies.net

The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) is a free online resource that compiles known allele frequencies from different polymorphic areas of the human genome into one searchable database.   The online database currently holds information from over 1,600 population studies with frequencies from more than 10.5 million individuals. Frequencies are included from several immune genes, including:  […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Cytokine Measurement

What Are Cytokine Measurement Assays? Cytokine measurement assays are sensitive measures for both primary cell assays and purified antigen-specific cultures. Detecting the presence of cytokines — small proteins that are secreted by immune cells to signal an immune or inflammatory response — can help researchers better understand how our bodies respond to invading pathogens. Common […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Innate vs. Adaptive Immunity

Scientific studies directly or indirectly involving human immunity require an understanding of both sides of the complex system. Even the development of an adaptive antigen-specific cell-based therapy requires components of the innate immune system that work in concert with the adaptive cells. If you don’t work primarily in immunology, this post will give you a […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Challenges and Opportunities with Influenza Virus

Influenza is a complex, unpredictable virus that has kept scientists searching for more universal vaccinations and treatments to the deadly disease. Two mechanisms render the immune system ineffective in fighting the influenza virus: antigenic drift and antigenic shift. Antigenic Drift: Due to the lack of RNA proofreading enzymes, influenza virus genomes can accumulate mutations through […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: MHC and HLA Explained

Our new series, Immunology for Non-Immunologists, will focus on key concepts to help scientists and researchers without extensive immunology backgrounds understand the functions and use cases for our immune cell products. Our last Immunology for Non-Immunologists post described how T cells recognize peptides bound to MHC molecules, and how changes to the peptide or MHC […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: T Cell Antigen Recognition

Our new series, Immunology for Non-Immunologists, will focus on key concepts to help scientists and researchers without extensive immunology backgrounds understand the functions and use cases for our immune cell products. This post focuses on the T cell antigen recognition process. If you have other questions about using our products in your lab, just ask […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: B and T Cell Receptors

Our new series, Immunology for Non-Immunologists, will focus on key concepts to help scientists and researchers without extensive immunology backgrounds understand the functions and use cases for our immune cell products. Our first post in this series focuses on the structure and function of B cell and T cell receptors. If you have other questions […]