Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Surface Antigen Expression

What Is Surface Antigen Expression? Surface antigens, or cell markers, are a handy way for scientists to classify cells based on cell type and function, which is beneficial for early-stage research as well as disease diagnosis and treatment.  The cluster of differentiation (CD) nomenclature was adopted in the early 1980s and serves as a global […]

Mice with Human Immune Systems: A Model for in Vivo Studies

Mice have long been used as a model system for studying the human immune system, from which many basic principles of immunology have been uncovered. As discoveries made using mouse models show promise for therapeutic development for human patients, human-mouse models can serve as an ideal model of the human immune system prior to clinical […]

Ask A Scientist: How Can I Use Antigen-Specific T Cells?

Antigen-specific T cells have many excellent use cases in the lab for early-stage research and discovery. As we continue to develop novel antigen-specific T cell lines — including those specific to tumors, diabetes, and viruses — more use cases are coming to light.  If you’re working in an academic or biopharma research lab, consider antigen-specific […]

The Researcher’s Guide to Utilizing PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) play a critical role in our understanding of the human immune system and developing life-saving and life-altering treatments. With plays in immunology, inflammation, toxicology, vaccination, and other fields, scientists in all areas need to have a deep understanding of this ready-made blend of innate and adaptive immune cells. We’ve created […]

Introducing T-Scan: A High-Throughput Platform for Identifying Antigens Recognized by T Cells

There is a new method for discovering T cell epitopes, recently detailed in a Cell article, T-Scan: A Genome-wide Method for the Systematic Discovery of T Cell Epitopes. T cell profiling technologies have long been a limitation to our understanding of T cell antigens, something that the creators of T-Scan hope to address.  How T-Scan […]

Useful Tools in Immunology:

The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) is a free online resource that compiles known allele frequencies from different polymorphic areas of the human genome into one searchable database.   The online database currently holds information from over 1,600 population studies with frequencies from more than 10.5 million individuals. Frequencies are included from several immune genes, including:  […]

Could You Benefit from Research-Grade Leukopaks?

Immunology and oncology researchers use leukopaks for a steady supply of effector cells as raw materials for their research and development efforts. Leukopaks are generally collected from healthy donors and shipped fresh overnight, containing between 5 and 20 billion white blood cells depending on the volume of blood processed from the donor during leukapheresis. Leukopaks […]

Immunology for Non-Immunologists: Hot vs. Cold Tumors

Hot, cold, and in-between. Tumors come in all forms — some better targets for immunotherapy treatment than others. This post will help you learn more about hot tumors, cold tumors, and what researchers are doing to make cold tumors more receptive to immunotherapies.  What Are Hot Tumors?  Tumors described as “hot” are those that show […]